Drinkable Water
Blackwater Ice
Greywater Ice
Edible Ice
Research & Analysis
Design & Policy

32°F Armature


Site Analysis


_threatened wetland 


Design Argument

_ice economy as armature

_value-added optimization

Regional Framework

_ice along sewage canals

_alt-state of economy

Urban Interaction

_32°f landscape reform

_ice making cooperatives

Future Implication

_ice making apparatus


32ºF Armature’s act of changing state of water could be seen as a metaphor for the will of deliberately reshape current floriculture & pisciculture economical structure in Kolkata. This sustainable hydromorphology design counters the urbanization encroachment pressure at rural Kolkata and accommodates the growth of grass roots value-addition industries benefiting Calcuttans who are underprivileged. 

#32°f #altstatewater



_alt-state of water, catalyst for alt-state of economy

_kolkata_west bengal_india

_design completed 2017

#chu li #huaxia wu



32F_Scale of Floriculture & Pisciculture Industries
32F_Floriculture_Landscape Fabric




32F_Floriculture_Spiritual Prosperity
32F_Pisciculture_Physical Well-being
32F_Pisciculture_Landscape Fabric




32F_Foundation Principles of 32F Economy
32F_Ice_Significant Segment in Floriculture and Pisciculture
32F_Indigenous Approach_Heat Exchange Mechanism

Indigenous ice making has long been a tradition practiced by the Calcuttans. Yet, it is the scarcity of ice which limits the distance and time allowed for fish and flower transportation/storage and constrains the development of by-product industries in Kolkata. 




32°f economy
in kolkata
Blackwater Ice

_made out of blackwater

_solar-powered ice making

_pre-monsoon season*


Greywater Ice

_made out of greywater

_biogas-powered ice making

_monsoon season*

Edible Ice

_made out of drinkable water

_solar-powered ice making

_post-monsoon season*

32F_Ice Making_Modern Approach

_strong solar radiation

_relatively high sewage volume

_low fish & flower sales volume

_highest temperature




_weakest solar radiation

_highest sewage volume

_highest fish sales volume at low sales price

_relatively high temperature




_strongest solar radiation

_lowest sewage volume

_highest flower sales volume at lowest sales price

_low temperature




Alt-State of Water

Alt-State of Economy

_32°f blackwater

_blackwater ice for environmental cooling


_32°f greywater

_greywater ice for fish & flower transportation

_32°f drinkable water

_edible ice for value-added manufacturing

32F_Scenario 1_Synthesized Diagram





32F_Scenario 1_Future Implication

Scenario 1 focuses on the period from February to May, when the temperature rises to its highest point of the year; thus ice is majorly used for environmental cooling. As this level of ice does not require direct contact with humans, it can be made out of untreated sewage water. By altering the micro typography and designing a trenches to connect the two parallel open sewage channels, delta areas are created in between. This space is then used to form a air-conditioned "blackwater ice co-operative".

32F_Scenario 1_Blackwater Ice Cooperative
urban interaction
32F_Scenario 2_Site Framework
32F_Scenario 2 _Synthesized Diagram





32F_Scenario 2_Future Implication
32F_Scenario 2_Greywater Ice Cooperative

Scenario 2 centers around the interval between June and October, which is the monsoon season when both city sewage outflow and fish production reach their annual peaks. As solar energy is inaccessible at this time of the year, "greywater ice co-operative" is powered by biogas(methane) electric generator. Ice factories hence sit adjacent to fishing ponds and anaerobic ponds, with the former providing greywater for ice and the latter offering biogas as power supply. 

32F_Scenario 2_Rendering
32F_Scenario 3_Synthesized Diagram





32F_Scenario 3_Future Implication
32F_Scenario 3_Site Framework

Scenario 3 situates in the time between November to January, when Kolkata enjoys the strongest solar radiation. The continuous solar energy supply for ice making can be combined with the byproduct industries. Ice workshops are strategically located at low points, along with water ditches excavated according to typography;  The "edible ice co-operative" projects an economic boom from iced beverages, scented water, tie-dye crafts, fish oil medication and other value-addition industries

32F_Scenario 3_Edible Ice Cooperative

Alt-State of Water

Catalyst for

Alt-State of Economy

32°F Apparatus

Stakeholder &


32°F Armature intends to gradually form an experimental network which integrates ice, fish and flower to benefit the people economically and a framework that allows the expansion to happen in an eco-friendly manner.

#kate orff #nora akawi #dilip dacunha
#ziad jamaleddin #petra kempf #laura kurgan
#geeta mehta #julia watson

Copyright © 2017 Paul Xiaopu Wang. All Rights Reserved.

Beijing. San Francisco. New York City.

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32F_Scale of Floriculture & Pisciculture Industries